Cultures In War 6: Courtney Short and Don Farrell - YouTube Lecture - 02/22/2015
Northern Marianas Humanities CouncilPublished on Feb 22, 2015SUBSCRIBE 8COURTNEY A. SHORT graduated from Barnard College, Columbia University in 1999 with a BA in History. She earned a Masters in History in 2008 from the University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill where she is currently a PhD candidate in ABD status. From 2008‐2011, she taught Military History as an Assistant Professor at the United States Military Academy, West Point, NY. Her research focuses on race and identity during the occupation of Okinawa, 1945‐1952. She has published numerous book reviews in such publications as The Journal of Military History and Michigan War Studies and has presented her work at numerous conferences to include the Society of Military History Annual Meeting and the Hawaii International Conference on Arts and Humanities, where she was also published in the proceedings. She also presented a lecture on strategic military adaptation, racial contention and interservice rivalry in the Pacific War at the United States Military Academy Summer Seminar. "THE OCCUPATION OF OKINAWA: CONSIDERATIONS OF RACE AND IDENTITY IN NAVAL MILITARY GOVERNMENT POLICY" Her presentation focuses on the Naval Military Government that operated in Okinawa from September 1945 to July 1946. Following the conclusion of the Battle of Okinawa and the subsequent end of the Pacific War, military government operations and responsibilities for the Okinawan occupation transferred from the Army to the Navy. Despite changed conditions with the cessation of hostilities and the transition towards a peacetime occupation, Naval Military Government continued to meticulously analyze Okinawan traditions, history and the distinctive relationship with Japan much like the Army had. The period of Naval Military Government, however, marked a transition in the American view of the Okinawan people. Unlike during the battle, when soldiers struggled to decipher ethnic identity in order to diﬀerentiate the enemy from the civilian population, Naval Military Government seaman wrestled with the complexity of Okinawan identity and ethnicity as they rebuilt communities. American service members previously viewed Okinawans as possible enemy or, at best, docile and cooperative American cousins. Naval Military Government viewed Okinawans as competent and civilized: a group that formed a distinct, separate, unique ethnic community that was neither American nor Japanese in its likeness. Attributes of civility and independent identity as‐ signed to the population, along with practical considerations such as the attrition of Naval personnel due to post‐war curtailments of military commitments, shaped policy that led to Okinawan influence in government, medical structure, education and crime management. DON FARRELL was born in Redmond, Oregon. He served in the US Air Force from 1965‐1971, then earned a B.A. in Biology from California State College at Fuller in 1973 and a degree in Secondary Education from California State College at San Bernardino in 1975. Farrell began teaching on Guam in 1977. In 1981 he published The Americanization of Guam: 1898‐1918, then The Sacrifice of Guam: 1919‐1943 and Liberation-1944. Farrell moved to Tinian in 1987 and published the first History of the Northern Mariana Islands in 1991. Last year, he published the History of the Mariana Islands to Partition, and is now completing a new Modern History of the Northern Mariana Islands. Farrell served on the CNMI State Board of Education and was Chief of Staﬀ to the Mayor of Tinian. He serves as a member of the Board of Directors for the Northern Marianas Humanities Council and the CNMI State Historic Preservation Review Board. “OPERATION CENTERBOARD: THE PLAN TO DROP ATOMIC BOMBS ON JAPAN" By January 1945, the US Joint Chiefs of Staﬀ had concluded that an invasion of the Japanese home islands would be necessary to secure the ultimate defeat of Japan, and that a pre-emptive Soviet Army attack against Japan in Manchuria would be necessary to minimize American and British casualties. In February, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt secured Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin's agreement to this plan. That same month, Tinian, was chosen as the forward base from which the atomic bombs would be launched. In March, Project Alberta was created at the Los Alamos Laboratories, a division of the Manhattan Project (US Army Corps of Engineers). Their mission was to assemble atomic bombs on Tinian for delivery against Japan by the 509th Composite Bomb Group; Operation CENTERBOARD. Despite all adversity, the Project Alberta team fulfilled their mission and dropped two atomic bombs on Japan. The war came to a sudden, cataclysmic end. The killing stopped throughout Asia. Members of Project Alberta were dispatched from Tinian to Hiroshima and Nagasaki to study the bomb's blast eﬀect and radioactive residue. Because the bombs were dropped and Japan surrendered before the Soviet Union could occupy Hokkaido, the political partition of Japan was prevented.